How will the Next President of Cuba Be Elected on April 19?

How will the next President of Cuba Be Elected on April 19?

Sources from an expert on Cuba elections, Arnold August

For a full analysis based on interviews with Cuban deputies and experts as well as the author’s on the spot original field work of the full electoral process thus going beyond the formalities and dealing with Cuban reality, consult the book CUBA AND ITS NEIGHBOURS: DEMOCRACY IN MOTION by Arnold August. The publication also compares the political systems of the U.S. and Cuba, a theme being debated internationally in the wake of the recent March 11, 2018 Cuban elections and the upcoming election for a new President.

For further information and purchase:


Praise for the publication:

“Arnold August has been the most assiduous analyst of the Cuban electoral process for a decade and a half.” [written in 2014]


— Dr. George Lambie, professor of International Political Economy (Globalisation), Literature and Politics, Latin American Politics, De Montfort University, Leicester, U.K., and on the Editorial Board of the International Journal of Cuban Studies. From the International Journal of Cuban Studies, Journal of the International Institute for the Study of Cuba, Volume 6, Number 1, Spring 2014, Pluto Journals, ISSN 1756-3461.


“Finally, a book that explains in depth Cuba’s dynamic imperfect democracy and socialist system, while helping us understand its accomplishments on behalf of working people at home and abroad. August’s comparative critical analysis of popular movements for democratic change in Cuba, Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, and the United States will help activists to learn from the mistakes and successes of the South while trying to democratize both the South and the North.”


— Dr. James Cockcroft, award-winning author of 48 books, three-time Fulbright Scholar.


“This book, a tour de force from an expert who clearly knows his field well, is one that goes out of its way to make us think about what we understand by “democracy” and how we should view new manifestations in the ‘Third World.’”


— Antoni Kapcia, Professor in Latin American History, Cuba Specialist, University of Nottingham, U.K. Campus.


“Arnold August cuts through the common propaganda about democracy in the U.S. and the supposed lack of democracy in Cuba. Where August’s earlier work on the Cuban political system opened a window to this forbidden island, Cuba and Its Neighbours deepens our understanding of Cuba’s participatory processes and shows how they have been shaped by Cuba’s revolutionary history.”


— Cliff DuRand, Professor Emeritus of Social Philosophy, Morgan State University, Baltimore, Maryland


“August’s latest book studies Cuba’s structures of governance including elections and the functioning of the state between elections. It greatly expands on his previous, extremely useful analysis of Cuba’s elections in the second half of the 1990s. This new book provides a much -needed tool for accurate assessment of Cuba’s unique system of political participation and representation, through empirical evidence rather than through the customary second-hand interpretation. A must-read for anybody seriously interested in Cuba, and in the overall question of democracy and its practices.”


— Claudia Kaiser-Lenoir, Professor Emerita of Latin American Studies, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts


“This book offers a trailblazing perspective: democracy in Cuba is evaluated and described from within the system itself while comparing it with other experiences. The concept of ‘democracy in motion’ analyzes a creative process, demonstrating how Cuba is a social laboratory. In Cuba, as well as in some Latin American countries, participatory democracy is taking shape. Arnold August contrasts these experiences to the pretences of the U.S. model. Compulsory reading to understand Cuba and break out of the supposed supremacy of ‘the single outlook.”


— Claude Morin, Honorary Professor, Latin Americanist, Université de Montréal, Québec


“Arnold August is an expert on the Cuban reality and a meticulous researcher like few others. With rigour and a critical approach, he successfully addresses in his book the challenge to explain the idiosyncrasies and the fundamental universal relevance emerging from a multi-faceted examination of the exercise of governance in Cuba. It is an indispensable work not only for us in Cuba who need to perfect the concepts and practices that would consolidate the system we have been building in very difficult conditions for more than fifty years, but also for others interested in the improvement of the human condition as it is experienced in other contexts.”


— Jesús Pastor García Brigos, Researcher, Political Philosophy, Instituto de Filosofía; supervisor of its Ph.D. Program; author of several books on People’s Power in Cuba; and a co-author of Cuba: Propriedad Social y Construcción Socialista (Editorial Ciencias Sociales, La Habana, 2012)


“It is an enriching book for all those interested because of the overview offered and the context in which it places Cuba. For the Cuban reader, the book is very significant because of its updated vision of what C. Wright Mills wrote more than half a century ago and about which Cuba is very familiar: “changes in the power system of the United States have not involved important challenges to its basic legitimations [sic legitimacy],” and thus the U.S. “appears now before the world a naked and arbitrary power, as, in the name of realism, its men of decision enforce their often crackpot definitions upon world reality.” For the neighbouring reader [in the U.S.], the profound analysis by August, a serious researcher on Cuban themes over a long period of time, brings us closer to the contemporary changes that are taking place in Cuba as an expression of the existing potentialities, but not without its contradictions and the necessity for new developments.”


— Rafael Alhama Belamaric, Cuban social science researcher and author of many books, including “Capital Humano: Autorrealización y Reconocimiento Social” (Editorial Ciencias Sociales, La Habana, 2008) and recipient of the Annual Prize for Critical Scientific/Technical Work (2009).


“Arnold August’s Cuba and Its Neighbours: Democracy in Motion is an exceptional work that will succeed in the objective of educating its audience. It will assist toward broadening the outlook of all those who read it.


The chapter on democracy in the United States is among the best critical analyses I have read of the American nation’s formation, ideology and political system. The documents linked to the book in the website have struck me as being very interesting and educational. The commentaries are brief but they go to the very essence of each of the themes, clarifying the reasons for which the political elite in this country operate the way that they do. Everything related to the Puritans and their thought, as well as other idiosyncrasies of the ideology that gave birth to the genesis of this nation, is of great interest, seeing that throughout history they are reflected in domestic and international policy.


The analysis of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution, their limitations and their class origins is very revealing. The case study of the current president [Barack Obama] is part of the evaluation that I am making. The section on the U.S. presidential elections in 2008 and 2012, the significance of the existent president and how the electoral system functions in this country seem to me among the best that I have read on this theme.


The analysis of both the potential and the limitations of the Occupy Movement was very interesting for me. In fact, I learned only a couple of weeks ago [March 2013] while watching the TV channel Russia Today (RT) about the report that was divulged as a result of the Freedom of Information Act in which the FBI admitted having monitored this movement, among even worse acts than this. The U.S. press did not in any way reflect these events, at least not The New York Times that I read.


However, it was not solely this section of the book that impressed me. With regards to the absence of elections and democracy in Cuba, the publication contributes to undoing once and for all the myths imbued into the minds of consumers of information that is manipulated by the mass media, which is controlled by major economic interests, following the policy established by the political elites in this country.


The book’s description and analysis of the Cuban democratic and electoral system is excellent. It is undoubtedly the best that I have seen written on this theme. There are elements of the democratic functioning of Cuban society that even I myself had not noticed. The publication provides the key to recognizing unity and development of consensus as guides to the entire democratic process. The critical observations are perceptive, very intelligent and placed in their contexts.


I have begun to recommend the book to all those who are interested in the subject of Cuba. I sincerely believe that it has made a significant contribution to the elucidation of the democratic reality in Cuba. The book is being converted into a very valuable and essential instrument in the struggle in the field of ideas.”


— Fernando Gonzalez Llort, was one of the Cuban 5 imprisoned in the U.S., graduated with a summa cum laude in International Political Relations from the Higher Institute of International Relations University in 1987. He returned to Cuba in February 2014. He is a Hero of the Republic of Cuba.


“In Cuba and Its Neighbours: Democracy in Motion, Arnold August analyzes in a detailed manner the often disregarded Cuban electoral system, tearing to shreds the many clichés about the Caribbean republic. He also carries out a sound comparison with the United States, Venezuela, Bolivia and Ecuador, bringing us to question the concept of democracy and its various definitions that are often based on preconceived notions. This work, soundly documented and characterized by considerable scientific cogency, is a reference point for all persons interested in the subject of democracy as manifested in its various forms.”


— Dr. Salim Lamrani is a graduate in Iberian and Latin American Studies at Paris-Sorbonne University-Paris IV. He is now a lecturer at this university as well as at Paris-Est, Marne-la-Vallée University, and has authored many books and articles


“Arnold August offers us his deep analysis of Cuban reality in its own historical context. It is a balanced approach toward Cuban democracy, a system that is not perfect, but is fully Cuban. From his own viewpoint as an expert analyst, August reveals before his readers’ eyes a reality that is silenced or distorted by the mainstream media. For the Cuban audience, the book is proof of acknowledgement by non-Cubans who know, admire and defend the essence of the Cuban social process. This is a must-read if one really wants to understand Cuba and the struggle of the Cuban people.”


— Luis Chirino, Cuban journalist, university professor at Instituto Internacional de Periodismo José Martí and member of the professional association of Cuban journalists, Unión de Periodistas de Cuba (UPEC)


“Arnold August, in his book Cuba and Its Neighbours: Democracy in Motion, allows readers to become familiar not only with the reality of the island’s close neighbour, the United States – the process of its formation, its laws, its ability to endure as well as the characteristics and essential elements of the power apparatus – but also with Cuba and surrounding Latin America. He addresses in particular those countries that are developing 21st-century socialism, with its blue-green-reddish colours, that is to say, preserving elements of the old society, enhancing democratic values and providing an opening for its political, cultural or citizen revolutions in order to build a new society. The references to the links between these countries and their different realities constitute another interesting approach, focusing the analyses on political designs and the legal norms placed in their historical context, thus demonstrating that these countries are not seeking to attain the impossible.


The examination of Cuba does not amount to praise on a groundless basis; rather, the author, while recognizing the achievements, is critical, and he identifies the limitations and offers his judgments concerning causes and conditions. He exposes real phenomena and, with this global approach, he allows the reader to know what is being done and why the people are struggling, including the adversities of these nations, whose realities are being distorted as they face the monopoly of mass media and those who seek to impose control based on a single model. Perfect models do not exist – all can be perfected – and Cuba is shown as following that path.”


— Martha Prieto Valdés, Ph.D. in Legal Science, Tenured Professor of General Theory of Law and Constitutional Law at the Faculty of Law (University of Havana), Tenured Member of the Cuban Academy of Sciences, Social Science Section


“Arnold August’s book Cuba and Its Neighbours: Democracy in Motion is without doubt a publishing achievement that merits the largest dissemination and analysis, given its serious contribution to the scope of Cuban studies carried out in other countries. In contrast to other publications that confine themselves to a highly opinionated approach, August reveals the results of a profound investigation based on different scientific methods, which include, among others, interviews with a wide spectrum of Cubans who brought forward different points of view; fieldwork in scenarios where people’s participation develops; and, finally, the analysis of documents that provide the legal imprint and juridical order to Cuban socio-political life.


Based on a clear and precise language, August analyzes Cuban reality by plunging into the Caribbean island’s political system and its innovative mechanisms of democratic practice, which, in the main, are not known outside of Cuba. This ignorance has facilitated the proliferation of distortions whose objective is to delegitimize the Cuban Revolution. The book contributes to undoing these misrepresentations by divulging the diversified facets of the development of democracy in Cuba and one of its most important qualities: the continual striving for empowerment by sectors of the people at the base.


We are sure that this book will be very well welcomed by those readers interested in serious and profound analyses of contemporary alternative processes that seek a more just and equitable social order.”


— Dr. Olga Fernández Ríos, Researcher, Instituto de Filosofía, Havana, Associate Professor of Philosophical Sciences, University of Havana












Obama In Cuba: President Barack Obama’s Visit to Cuba


Photo: CubaDebate

Editorial of Granma: Official Voice of the Communist  Party of Cuba Central Committee.

March 9, 2016

Cuba reaffirms its will to advance in relations with the United States, on the basis of respect for the principles and purposes of the United Nations Charter and the principles of the Proclamation of Latin America and the Caribbean as a Zone of Peace

The President of the United States of America, Barack Obama, will make an official visit to Cuban this coming March 20-22.

This will be the second time a U.S. President comes to our archipelago. Previously having done so was Calvin Coolidge, who landed in Havana in January of 1928. He arrived aboard a warship to attend the 6th Pan American Conference, which was held at that time under the sponsorship of a local figure recalled as infamous, Gerardo Machado.

This will be the first time a President of the United States comes to a Cuba in full possession of her sovereignty and with a Revolution in power, headed by its historic leadership.

This event is part of the process initiated December 17, 2014, when the President of Cuba’s Councils of State and Ministers, Army General Raúl Castro Ruz, and President Barack Obama simultaneously announced the decision to reestablish diplomatic relations, broken by the United States almost 54 years ago. It is part of the complex process of normalization of bilateral ties, which has barely begun, and has advanced on the only grounds that are possible and just: respect, equality, reciprocity, and the recognition of our government’s legitimacy.

This point has been reached, in the very first place, as a result of the Cuban people’s heroic resistance and loyalty to principles, the defense of national independence and sovereignty. Such values, which have not been negotiable for 50 years, led the United States government to admit the severe damage the blockade has caused our population, and recognize the failure of the openly hostile policy toward the Revolution. Not with force, economic coercion, or isolation were they able to impose conditions on Cuba which were contrary to our aspirations, forged over almost 150 years of heroic struggle.

The current process undertaken with the United States has been possible also thanks to unwavering international solidarity, in particular from the governments and peoples of Latin America and the Caribbean, who put the United States in an unsustainable position of isolation. Strongly united, “like silver in the bedrock of the Andes,” as our national hero José Martí said in his essay “Our America,” Latin America and the Caribbean demanded a change in policy toward Cuba. This regional demand was made unequivocally clear at the Summits of the Americas in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, in 2009, and in Cartagena, Colombia, in 2012, when all countries of the region unanimously and categorically demanded the lifting of the blockade, and our country’s participation in the 7th hemispheric meeting in Panama, in 2015, to which a Cuban delegation, led by Raúl, attended, for the first time.

Since the announcements of December, 2014, Cuba and the United States have taken steps toward improving the bilateral context.

On July 20, 2015, diplomatic relations were officially reestablished, along with the commitment to develop them on the basis of respect, cooperation, and observance of the principles of international law.

Two meetings between the Presidents of the countries have taken place, in addition to the exchange of visits by ministers and other contacts between high ranking officials. Cooperation in various areas of mutual benefit are advancing, and new opportunities for discussion have opened up, allowing for dialogue on issues of bilateral and multi-lateral interest, including those about which we have different conceptions.

The U.S. President will be welcomed by the government of Cuba and its people with the hospitality which distinguishes us, and will be treated with all consideration and respect, as befits a head of state.

This will be an opportunity for the President to directly observe a nation immersed in its economic and social development, and in improving its citizens’ wellbeing. This people enjoys rights, and can exhibit achievements which are only dreams for many of the world’s countries, despite the limitations derived from our condition as an underdeveloped, blockaded country – which has earned us international recognition and respect.

Figures of international renown such as Pope Francis and Patriarch Kirill described this island, in their joint statement released in Havana in February, as “a symbol of hope of the New World.” French President François Hollande recently affirmed, “Cuba is respected and heard throughout Latin America,” and praised the country’s capacity for resistance in the face of the most difficult tests. South African leader Nelson Mandela always had words of profound gratitude for Cuba. In Matanzas, on July 26, 1991, he said, “Those of us in Africa are accustomed to being victims of other countries who want to seize our territory or subvert our sovereignty. In the history of Africa, there is no other example of a people (like the Cuban) who have come to the defense of one of us.”

Obama will find himself in a country which actively contributes to regional and world peace and stability, and which shares with other peoples not what we have left over, but the modest resources we possess, making solidarity an essential element of our identity, and humanity’s wellbeing – one of the fundamental objectives of our international policy, as Martí imparted to us.

He will also have the opportunity to meet a noble, friendly, dignified people with an elevated sense of patriotism and national unity, who have always struggled for a better future, despite the adversities we have been obliged to face.

The President of the United States will be received by a revolutionary people with a deeply-rooted political culture, which is the result of a long tradition of struggle for its true, definitive independence, first against Spanish colonialism and later against imperialist domination by the United States – a struggle in which our best sons and daughters have shed their blood and faced all manner of risks. A people who will never renounce the defense of their principles and the vast work of the Revolution, following without vacillation the examples of Carlos Manuel de Céspedes, José Martí, Antonio Maceo, Julio Antonio Mella, Rubén Martínez Villena, Antonio Guiteras and Ernesto Che Guevara, among many others.

This is also a people united by historical, cultural and affective ties with that of the United States, whose emblematic figure, the writer Ernest Hemingway, received the Nobel Prize for literature for a novel set in Cuba. A people which shows its gratitude to those from the United States who, like Thomas Jordan [1], Henry Reeve, Winchester Osgood [2] and Frederick Funston [3], fought with the Liberation Army in our wars of independence against Spain; and those who in the more recent era have opposed aggression against Cuba, like Reverend Lucius Walker who defied the blockade to bring solidarity and help to our people, and supported the return to the homeland of the boy Elián González and the Cuban Five. We learned from Martí to admire the homeland of Lincoln and repudiate Cutting [4].

Worth recalling are the words of the historic leader of the Cuban Revolution, Comandante en Jefe Fidel Castro Ruz, on September 11, 2001, when he affirmed, “Today is a day of tragedy for the United States. You know very well that hate for the U.S. people has never been sowed here. Perhaps, precisely because of its culture, and lack of complexes, feeling fully free, with a homeland and no master, Cuba is the country where U.S. citizens are treated with more respect. We have never preached any kind of national hate, or things that seem fanatical, that is why we are so strong, because we base our conduct on principles, on ideas, and treat every U.S. citizens who visits us with great respect – and they perceive this.”

This is the people who will receive President Obama, proud of their history, their roots, their national culture, and confident that a better future is possible. A nation that assumes with serenity and determination the current stage of relations with the United States, that recognizes the opportunities, as well as the unresolved problems between the two countries.

The President of the United States’ visit will be an important step in the process of normalization of bilateral relations. It must be remembered that Obama, as James Carter did previously, has decided to work toward normalization of ties with Cuba making use of his executive powers, and has consequently taken concrete action in this direction.

Nevertheless, a long, difficult road lies ahead to reach normalization, which will require the solution of key issues which have accumulated over more than five decades, and entrenched the confrontational character of relations between the two countries. Such problems are not resolved overnight, or with a Presidential visit.

To normalize relations with the United States, it is imperative that the economic, commercial, financial blockade – which causes the Cuba people hardship, and is the principal obstacle to our country’s development – be lifted.

Worthy of recognition are President Obama’s reiterated position that the blockade must be eliminated and his call on Congress to lift it. This is also a demand supported by a growing majority of the U.S. public, and almost unanimously by the international community, which on 24 occasions, in the United Nations General Assembly, has approved the Cuban resolution “The necessity of putting an end to the economic, commercial and financial blockade imposed by the United States of America on Cuba.”

The U.S. President has taken steps to modify the implementation of some aspects of the blockade, which is positive. High ranking officials of his administration have said that others are being studied. Nevertheless, it has not been possible to implement a good portion of these measures given their limited reach, and because of the continuing existence of other regulations, and the intimidating effect of the blockade as a whole, which has been strictly enforced for 50 years.

It is contradictory that, on the one hand, the government adopts these measures, and on the other, intensifies sanctions against Cuba which affect the daily life of our people.

Reality continues to show that the blockade is being maintained, and is rigorously enforced, with a notable extra-territorial reach, which has a chilling effect on companies and banks in the United States and other countries.

Exemplifying this are the multi-million dollar fines which continue to be levied on U.S. companies and banking institutions, and those of other nationalities, for having relations with Cuba; the denial of services and the blocking of financial operations of international banks with our country; and the freezing of legitimate transfers of funds to and from Cuba, including those in currencies other than the U.S dollar.

The Cuban people hope that the U.S. President’s visit will serve to consolidate his will to be actively involved in a thorough debate in Congress for the lifting of the blockade, and, in the meantime, that he continues to use his executive prerogatives to modify as much as possible its application, without the need for legislative action.

Other issues which are damaging Cuban sovereignty must also be resolved in order to achieve normal relations between the two countries. Territory occupied by the U.S. Naval base in Guantánamo, against the will of our government and people, must be returned to Cuba, to respect the unanimous wish of Cubans, expressed for more than 100 years. Interventionist programs, intended to provoke destabilizing situations and changes in our country’s political, economic, social order, must be eliminated. The “regime change” policy must be definitively interred.

At the same time, the pretension of fabricating a domestic political opposition, supported by money from U.S. contributors, must be abandoned. An end must be put to aggressive radio and television broadcasts directed toward Cuba in open violation of international law, and the illegitimate use of telecommunications for political purposes, recognizing that the goal is not to exercise a given influence on Cuban society, but to put technology at the service of development and knowledge.

The preferential migratory treatment our citizens receive, in accordance with the Cuban Adjustment Act and the “wet foot-dry foot” policy, causes the loss of human life, and encourages illegal emigration and trafficking in persons, in addition to generating problems for third countries. This situation must be changed, as must be canceled the “parole” program for Cuban medical professionals which deprives the country of human resources vital to the health of our people, and affects the intended beneficiaries of Cuban cooperation with nations which need our support. Likewise, policies which require Cuban athletes to break ties with their country, in order to play in U.S. leagues, must change.

These policies of the past are incongruent with the new stage which the United States government has initiated with our country. They were all established prior to the administration of President Obama, but he can modify some of them with executive decisions, and eliminate others entirely.

Cuba has assumed the construction of a new relationship with the United States, fully exercising its sovereignty and committed to its ideals of social justice and solidarity. No one can presume that to do so we must renounce a single one of our principles, concede an inch in their defense, or abandon what is declared in our Constitution: “Economic, diplomatic relations with any other state can never be negotiated under aggression, threats, or coercion by a foreign power.”

Not even the slightest doubt can be harbored with respect to Cuba’s unconditional commitment to its revolutionary and anti-imperialist ideals, and its foreign policy in favor of the world’s just causes, the defense of peoples’ self-determination, and traditional support to our sister countries.

As was expressed in the latest Revolutionary Government Declaration, our solidarity is, and will be, immutable, with the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, the government led by President Nicolás Maduro, and the Bolivarian, Chavista people, which are struggling to find their own path, and confront systematic destabilization attempts and unilateral sanctions established by an unfounded, unjust U.S. Executive Order, in March of 2015, which was condemned throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. The announcement made this past March 3, extending the so-called “National Emergency” and the sanctions, is an unacceptable, direct intervention in the internal affairs of Venezuela and its sovereignty. The Order must be abolished, and this will be a firm, ongoing demand by Cuba.

As Army General Raúl Castro said, “We will not renounce our ideals of independence and social justice, or surrender even a single one of our principles, or concede a millimeter in the defense of our national sovereignty.

We will not allow ourselves to be pressured in regards to our internal affairs. We have won this sovereign right with great sacrifices and at the cost of great risks.”

We reiterate one more time, we have reached this point as a result of our convictions, and because we have reason and justice on our side.

Cuba reaffirms its will to advance in relations with the United States, on the basis of respect for the principles and purposes of the United Nations Charter and the principles of the Proclamation of Latin America and the Caribbean as a Zone of Peace, signed by the region’s heads of state and government, which include absolute respect for independence, sovereignty, and the inalienable right of every state to choose its own political, economic, social and cultural system without interference of any kind; in addition to equality, and reciprocity.

Cuba reiterates its full disposition to maintain respectful dialogue with the government of the United States, and develop relations of civilized coexistence.

Coexisting does not mean being obliged to renounce the ideas in which we believe and have brought us thus far, or our socialism, our history, our culture.

The profound conceptual differences between Cuba and the United States on political models, social justice, international relations, world peace and stability, among others, will persist.

Cuba defends the indivisibility, interdependence and universality of civil, political, economic, social and cultural human rights. We are convinced that it is an obligation of governments to defend and guarantee the right to health, education, social security, equal pay for equal work, the rights of children, as well as the right to food and development. We reject the political manipulation and double standards relating to human rights, which must end. Cuba, which has signed 44 international instruments on this subject, while the United States has only committed to 18, has much to share, to defend, and show.

What our ties with the United States should accomplish is that the two countries respect their differences, and create a relationship which is beneficial for both peoples.

Regardless of the progress which can be achieved in ties with the United States, the Cuban people will continue to move forward. With our own efforts and proven capacity and creativity, we will continue to work for the country’s development and the wellbeing of Cubans. We will not desist in the demand that the blockade, which has caused and causes so much harm, be lifted. We will persevere in the process of updating the socio-economic model we have chosen, and the construction of a prosperous, sustainable socialism to consolidate the gains to the Revolution.

A path sovereignly chosen, which will surely be reaffirmed by the 7th Congress of the Communist Party of Cuba, with Fidel and Raúl victorious.

This is the Cuba which will respectfully welcome President Obama.

[1] Major General, head of the Liberation Army’s General Staff (1869).

[2] Comandante. Killed in combat during the siege of Guáimaro, October 28, 1896.

[3] Artillery Colonel, under the command of Calixto García.

[4] A figure who in 1886 promoted hate and aggression against Mexico.